Linear positioning systems are utilized in wide-ranging manufacturing applications from machine tools to high-precision applications such as semiconductors and photovoltaics. New linear positioning systems exist with ranges of motion as long as several centimeters and positioning resolutions as low as several nanometers. The ability to meet high-precision manufacturing tolerances requires accurate knowledge of the positioning performance of these systems, yet a dedicated standard for evaluating the performance of high-precision single axis linear positioning systems does not exist. Existing standards for the performance of single axis linear positioning systems within machine tools (ASME B5.54-2005, ASME B5.57-2012, ISO 230-1:2012) can be difficult to apply for the performance of high-precision positioning systems that can approach the measurement uncertainty. A new standard with measurement methods specific to characterization of these stages is needed.
This tutorial outlines a new approach for performance evaluation of single axis linear positioning systems that is being developed with input from industry, academia, and government in coordination with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), which will ultimately culminate in a new standard. This tutorial will highlight the new approaches, instrumentation and methods being considered for high-precision linear stages. Characterization of the positioning-related errors and the stage error motions, both straightness and angular, will be covered. Several tutors will present in an interactive workshop format. Participants will have opportunities to provide input to the draft standard and engage with the committee.
Dr. Gregory W. Vogl is a Mechanical Engineer at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. He received his degrees in Engineering Mechanics from Virginia Tech, after which Greg designed, fabricated, and experimented on microelectromechanical systems as a National Research Council Postdoctoral Researcher at NIST. Greg then joined the Production Systems Group, in which he worked on standards development for machine tools and vibration metrology for accelerometers. Currently, Greg is a member of the Prognostics and Health Management for Reliable Operations in Smart Manufacturing (PHM4SM) project, which seeks to develop methodologies, protocols, and reference datasets to enable robust real-time diagnostics and prognostics for smart manufacturing systems. Greg develops sensor-based solutions for on-machine and real-time health assessment of machine tool linear axes and spindles. For his contributions, Greg is also the recipient of a NIST Engineering Laboratory Mentoring Award and NIST Colleagues’ Choice Award.
Dr. Axel Grabowski studied physics and mathematics at the University of Saarland, Germany. He received a diploma degree in physics in the field of surface science in 2000. Afterwards, his research career focused on the field of quantum optics and he continued his work at the University of Stuttgart, Germany, where he finished his Ph.D. in Physics in 2006. In the same year he joined Physik Instrumente (PI), Germany, a worldwide leading supplier of solutions in the fields of motion and positioning as a research and development engineer. These days Dr. Axel Grabowski is Head of the R&D Department Sensor Technologies at Physik Instrumente (PI). He holds several patents in the field of sensors and sensor technologies. His research and development group mainly focuses on the development of new and advanced sensor and measurement technologies ranging from single-axis to multi-axis solutions. He is an ASME member and an active member of the group working on the ASME B5.64 “Methods for the Performance Evaluation of Single Axis Linear Positioning Systems” standard.
Dr. Stephen Ludwick leads the mechatronic research group at Aerotech, Inc., a manufacturer of precision automation systems. He joined Aerotech in 1999 and is currently responsible for developing motion control systems and feedback control algorithms with an emphasis on the interactions between mechanical, electrical, and algorithmic components of a design. He is also an adjunct associate professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science at the University of Pittsburgh, and currently serves as an Editor-in-Chief for the journal Precision Engineering. Dr. Ludwick holds a B.S. degree in Mechanical Engineering & Engineering and Public Policy from Carnegie Mellon University, and S.M. and Ph.D. degrees in Mechanical Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Dr. Jimmie Miller, ASPE member since 1990, is currently (25+ years) the Chief Engineer for the Center for Precision Metrology at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. He holds an AAS degree in electronics engineering technology, a BS in both mathematics and physics and a MS (UNC Charlotte) and PhD (U Warwick) in Engineering. Interests include instrumentation, dimensional metrology, machine design and metrology, and interferometry. He was the co-recipient of the 2009 ASME Blackall Machine Tool and Gage award.